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Osama bin Fadhel Al-Barr. Makkah has been referred to by many names. As with many Arabic words, the etymology of Makkah is obscure. This is presumed to have been the name of the city at the time of Abraham Ibrahim in Islamic tradition and it is also transliterated as Baca, Baka, Bakah, Bakka, Becca, Bekka, among others.

In South Arabic , the language in use in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of Muhammad, the b and m were interchangeable.

This is presumed to have been the origin of the current form of the name. The word "Mecca" in English has come to be used to refer to any place that draws large numbers of people, and because of this some English-speaking Muslims have come to regard the use of this spelling for the city as offensive.

The consensus in academic scholarship is that "Macoraba", the place mentioned in Arabia Felix by Claudius Ptolemy , is Makkah. Many etymologies have been proposed but the most suitable one is that it is derived from the Old South Arabian root "M-K-R-B" which means temple.

In , Makkah and the surrounding area became an important site for paleontology with respect to primate evolution, with the discovery of a Saadanius fossil.

Saadanius is considered to be a primate closely related to the common ancestor of the Old World monkeys and apes. The early history of Makkah is still largely disputed, as there are no unambiguous reference to it in ancient literature prior to the rise of Islam [32] and no architecture from the time of Muhammad.

Even though detailed descriptions of Western Arabia were established by the Romans, such as by Procopius , there are no references of a pilgrimage and trading outpost such as Makkah.

The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus writes about Arabia in his work Bibliotheca historica , describing a holy shrine: "And a temple has been set up there, which is very holy and exceedingly revered by all Arabians".

However, the geographic location Diodorus describes is located in northwest Arabia, around the area of Leuke Kome , closer to Petra and within the former Nabataean Kingdom and Roman province of Arabia Petraea.

Ptolemy lists the names of 50 cities in Arabia, one going by the name of "Macoraba". There has been speculation since that this could be a reference to Makkah, but many scholars see no compelling explanation to link the two names.

The Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus also enumerated many cities of Western Arabia, most of whom can be identified.

According to Bowersock, he did mention Makkah as "Geapolis" or "Hierapolis", the latter one meaning "holy city", referring to the sanctuary of the Ka'bah , well known already in pagan times.

The first direct reference to Makkah in external literature occurs in CE, in the Byzantine-Arab Chronicle, though here the author places it in Mesopotamia rather than the Hejaz.

Bowersock disagree and assert that Makkah was a major trading outpost. Muslims see the mention of a pilgrimage at the Valley of Baca in the Old Testament chapter Psalm 84 :3—6 as a reference to Makkah, similar to the Qur'an at Surah Some time in the 5th century, the Ka'bah was a place of worship for the deities of Arabia's pagan tribes.

Makkah's most important pagan deity was Hubal , which had been placed there by the ruling Quraish tribe. In the 6th century, they joined the lucrative spice trade , since battles elsewhere were diverting trade routes from dangerous sea routes to more secure overland routes.

The Byzantine Empire had previously controlled the Red Sea , but piracy had been increasing. Makkah's prominence as a trading center also surpassed the cities of Petra and Palmyra.

The tribes of southern Arabia asked the Persian king Khosrau I for aid, in response to which he came south to Arabia with foot-soldiers and a fleet of ships near Makkah.

By the middle of the 6th century, there were three major settlements in northern Arabia , all along the south-western coast that borders the Red Sea, in a habitable region between the sea and the Hejaz mountains to the east.

Although the area around Makkah was completely barren, it was the wealthiest of the three settlements with abundant water from the renowned Zamzam Well and a position at the crossroads of major caravan routes.

The harsh conditions and terrain of the Arabian peninsula meant a near-constant state of conflict between the local tribes , but once a year they would declare a truce and converge upon Makkah in an annual pilgrimage.

Up to the 7th century, this journey was intended for religious reasons by the pagan Arabs to pay homage to their shrine, and to drink Zamzam.

However, it was also the time each year that disputes would be arbitrated, debts would be resolved, and trading would occur at Meccan fairs.

These annual events gave the tribes a sense of common identity and made Makkah an important focus for the peninsula. The " Year of the Elephant " is the name in Islamic history for the year approximately equating to CE , when, according to Islamic sources such as Ibn Ishaq , Abraha descended upon Makkah, riding an elephant, with a large army after building a cathedral at San'aa , named al-Qullays in honor of the Negus of Axum.

It gained widespread fame, even gaining attention from the Byzantine Empire. According to Islamic tradition, this was the year of Muhammad 's birth.

His brother Qays who was with him, fled to Abraha and told him the news, which increased his rage and fury and he swore to raid the Kinana tribe and destroy the Ka'bah.

Ibn Ishaq further states that one of the men of the Quraysh tribe was angered by this, and going to Sana'a, entering the church at night and defiling it; widely assumed to have done so by defecating in it.

Abraha marched upon the Ka'bah with a large army, which included one or more war elephants , intending to demolish it. When news of the advance of his army came, the Arab tribes of Quraysh, Kinanah, Khuza'a and Hudhayl united in the defense of the Ka'bah and the city.

A man from the Himyarite Kingdom was sent by Abraha to advise them that Abraha only wished to demolish the Ka'bah and if they resisted, they would be crushed.

Abdul Muttalib told the Meccans to seek refuge in the hills while he and some members of the Quraysh remained within the precincts of the Kaaba.

Abraha sent a dispatch inviting Abdul-Muttalib to meet with Abraha and discuss matters. When Abdul-Muttalib left the meeting he was heard saying, [ citation needed ].

Abraha eventually attacked Makkah. However, the lead elephant, known as Mahmud, [68] is said to have stopped at the boundary around Makkah and refused to enter.

It has been theorized that an epidemic such as by smallpox could have caused such a failed invasion of Makkah.

According to the th Surah of the Qur'an, Al-Fil , the next day, a dark cloud of small birds sent by Allah appeared.

The birds carried small rocks in their beaks, and bombarded the Ethiopian forces and smashed them to a state like that of eaten straw. Camel caravans, said to have first been used by Muhammad's great-grandfather, were a major part of Makkah's bustling economy.

Alliances were struck between the merchants in Makkah and the local nomadic tribes, who would bring goods — leather, livestock, and metals mined in the local mountains — to Makkah to be loaded on the caravans and carried to cities in Shaam and Iraq.

Goods from Africa and the Far East passed through en route to Syria including spices, leather, medicine, cloth, and slaves; in return Makkah received money, weapons, cereals and wine, which in turn were distributed throughout Arabia.

Makkah became the center of a loose confederation of client tribes, which included those of the Banu Tamim. Other regional powers such as the Abyssinians , Ghassanids, and Lakhmids were in decline leaving Meccan trade to be the primary binding force in Arabia in the late 6th century.

Muhammad was born in Makkah in , and thus Islam has been inextricably linked with it ever since.

He was born in a minor faction, the Banu Hashim , of the ruling Quraysh tribe. It was in Makkah, in the nearby mountain cave of Hira on Jabal al-Nour , that, according to Islamic tradition, Muhammad began receiving divine revelations from God through the archangel Jibreel in AD.

Advocating his form of Abrahamic monotheism against Meccan paganism, and after enduring persecution from the pagan tribes for 13 years, Muhammad emigrated to Medina hijrah in with his companions, the Muhajirun , to Yathrib later renamed Madinah.

The conflict between the Quraysh and the Muslims is accepted to have begun at this point. Overall, Meccan efforts to annihilate Islam failed and proved to be costly and unsuccessful.

Subsequently, Muslims and Meccans entered into the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah , whereby the Quraysh and their allies promised to cease fighting Muslims and their allies and promised that Muslims would be allowed into the city to perform the pilgrimage the following year.

It was meant to be a ceasefire for 10 years; however, just two years later, the Banu Bakr , allies of the Quraish, violated the truce by slaughtering a group of the Banu Khuza'ah, allies of the Muslims.

Muhammad and his companions, now 10, strong, marched into Makkah and conquered the city. The pagan imagery was destroyed by Muhammad's followers and the location Islamized and rededicated to the worship of Allah alone.

Makkah was declared the holiest site in Islam ordaining it as the center of Muslim pilgrimage Hajj , one of the faith's Five Pillars.

Muhammad then returned to Medina, after assigning ' Akib ibn Usaid as governor of the city. His other activities in Arabia led to the unification of the peninsula under the banner of Islam.

Within the next few hundred years, stretched from North Africa into Asia and parts of Europe. As the Islamic realm grew, Makkah continued to attract pilgrims from all across the Muslim world and beyond, as Muslims came to perform the annual Hajj pilgrimage.

Makkah also attracted a year-round population of scholars, pious Muslims who wished to live close to the Kaaba, and local inhabitants who served the pilgrims.

Due to the difficulty and expense of the Hajj, pilgrims arrived by boat at Jeddah, and came overland, or joined the annual caravans from Syria or Iraq.

Makkah was never the capital of any of the Islamic states. Muslim rulers did contribute to its upkeep, such as during the reigns of ' Umar r.

Muhammad's return to Medina shifted the focus away from Makkah and later even further away when ' Ali , the fourth caliph, took power chose Kufa as his capital.

The Umayyad Caliphate moved the capital to Damascus in Syria and the Abbasid Caliphate to Baghdad , in modern-day Iraq, which remained the center of the Islamic Empire for nearly years.

Makkah re-entered Islamic political history during the Second Fitna , when it was held by Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr and the Zubayrids.

One of the most famous travelers to Makkah in the 14th century was Moroccan scholar and traveler, Ibn Battuta.

In his rihla account , he provides a vast description of the city. Immediately, he says, it felt like a holy sanctuary and thus.

He remained in Makkah for three years and left in CE. During his second year in the holy city, he says his caravan arrived "with a great quantity of alms for the support of those who were staying in Makkah and Medina".

Battuta says the Ka'bah was large, but was destroyed and rebuilt smaller than the original and that it contained images of angels and prophets including Jesus, his mother Mary and many others.

Battuta describes the Ka'bah as an important part of Makkah due to the fact that many people make the pilgrimage to it. Battuta describes the people of the city as being humble and kind, and also willing to give a part of everything they had to someone who had nothing.

The inhabitants of Makkah and the village itself, he says, were very clean. There was also a sense of elegance to the village.

In , the then Sharif of Makkah, Barakat bin Muhammad, acknowledged the supremacy of the Ottoman Caliph but retained a great degree of local autonomy.

Muhammad Ali Pasha successfully returned Makkah to Ottoman control in In , the Saud were defeated again but survived and founded the Second Saudi State that lasted until and led on to the present country of Saudi Arabia.

Although Burton was certainly not the first non-Muslim European to make the Hajj Ludovico di Varthema did this in , [78] his pilgrimage remains one of the most famous and documented of modern times.

Makkah was regularly hit by cholera outbreaks. Between and , cholera broke out among pilgrims at Makkah 27 times. The British agent T.

Lawrence conspired with the Ottoman governor, Hussain bin Ali , the Sharif of Makkah to revolt against the Ottoman Empire and it was the first city captured by his forces in the Battle of Makkah.

Sharif's revolt proved a turning point of the war on the eastern front. Hussein declared a new state, the Kingdom of Hejaz , declaring himself the Sharif of the state and Makkah his capital.

News reports in November via contact in Cairo with returning Hajj pilgrims, stated that with the Ottoman Turkish authorities gone, the Hajj of was free of the previous massive extortion and monetary demands made by the Turks who were agents of the Ottoman government.

The city has been expanded to include several towns previously considered to be separate from the holy city and now is just a few kilometers outside the main sites of the Hajj, Mina, Muzdalifah and Arafat.

Makkah is not served by any airport, due to concerns about the city's safety. The city today is at the junction of the two most important highways in all of the Saudi Arabian highway system, Highway 40, which connects the city to Jeddah in the west and the capital, Riyadh and Dammam in the east and Highway 15, which connects it to Medina , Tabuk and onward to Jordan in the north and Abha and Jizan in the south.

The Ottomans had planned to extend their railway network to the holy city, but were forced to abandon this plan due to their partaking in the First World War.

The haram area of Makkah, in which the entry of non-Muslims is forbidden, is much larger than that of Medina.

On 20 November , two hundred armed dissidents led by Juhayman al-Otaibi , seized the Grand Mosque , claiming the Saudi royal family no longer represented pure Islam and that the Masjid al-Haram and the Ka'bah, must be held by those of true faith.

The rebels seized tens of thousands of pilgrims as hostages and barricaded themselves in the mosque.

The siege lasted two weeks, and resulted in several hundred deaths and significant damage to the shrine, especially the Safa-Marwah gallery.

A multinational force was finally able to retake the mosque from the dissidents. Some important buildings that have been destroyed include the house of Khadijah , the wife of Muhammad, the house of Abu Bakr , Muhammad's birthplace and the Ottoman-era Ajyad Fortress.

Makkah has been the site of several incidents and failures of crowd control because of the large numbers of people who come to make the Hajj.

Makkah holds an important place in Islam and is the holiest city in all branches of the religion. The city derives its importance from the role it plays in the Hajj and ' Umrah.

The masjid is also the site of the Zamzam Well. According to Islamic tradition, a prayer in the masjid is equal to , prayers in any other masjid around the world.

There is a difference of opinion between Islamic scholars upon who first built the Ka'bah , some believe it was built by the angels while others believe it was built by Adam.

Regardless, it was built several times before reaching its current state, the most famous of these renovations being the one by Abraham Ibrahim in Islamic tradition.

The Ka'bah is also the common direction of prayer qibla for all Muslims. The surface surrounding the Ka'bah on which Muslims circumambulate it is known as the Mataf.

The Black Stone is a stone, considered by scientists to be a meteorite or of similar origin and believed by Muslims to be of divine origin.

The area around the stone is generally always crowded and guarded by policemen to ensure the pilgrims' safety.

This is the stone which Abraham stood on to build the higher parts of the Ka'bah. It contains two footprints that are comparatively larger than average modern-day human feet.

The stone is raised and housed in a golden hexagonal chamber beside the Ka'bah on the Mataf plate. Muslims believe that in the divine revelation to Muhammad, the Qur'an, Allah describes the mountains of Safa and Marwah as symbols of his divinity.

Walking between the two mountains seven times, 4 times from Safa to Marwah and 3 times from Marwah interchangeably, is considered a mandatory pillar rukn of ' Umrah.

The Hajj pilgrimage, also called the greater pilgrimage, attracts millions of Muslims from all over the world and almost triples Makkah's population for one week in the twelfth and final Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah.

In , the Hajj attracted 2,, pilgrims to the holy city. Every adult, healthy Muslim who has the financial and physical capacity to travel to Makkah must perform the Hajj at least once in a lifetime.

Umrah, the lesser pilgrimage, is not obligatory, but is recommended in the Quran. Share or comment on this article: London's Olympic Park toilets to turn away from Mecca out of respect for Islamic law.

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Small coastal towns have death rates from coronavirus almost HALF those of Covid treatment hopes as antibody drug made by pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline moves onto phase They then proceed to the hill Arafat sometimes called a mountain, but with a height of only 70 m , a site for prayers, where Muhammad is believed to have delivered his final sermon.

Both the mosque and the city itself are strictly off limits to non-Muslims. For most English speakers, "Mecca" has long been the accepted transliteration of the original Arabic for the holy city.

The word Mecca in English has gone on to refer to any center of activity sought by a group of people with a common interest.

Las Vegas, for example, is considered the "gambling Mecca" even though gambling is strictly prohibited by Islamic law. Many Muslims find these out-of-context uses offensive.

In an effort to distinguish between the metaphorical and official references to the holy site, the Saudi Arabian government began promoting a new transliteration, Makkah al-Mukkaramah, in the s.

Many English-speaking Muslims now consider this the preferred spelling, and closer to the original Arabic. While this new usage has been officially adopted by the U.

Department of State, its spread is still incipient among anglophones at large. Toggle navigation. ReligionFacts Mecca. The Religious Significance of Mecca In addition to prayer, a pilgrimage to Mecca is required of every Muslim who can afford it as one of the Five Pillars of the faith.

The conflict between the Quraysh Sex prank xxx the Muslims is accepted to Marika fingerroos naked begun at this Anime porn pic. Library of Congress Country Studies. The Kaaba held idols of the Meccan gods. Tumblr cum on pussy are also many walk-in clinics available for both residents and pilgrims. Khalid bin Faisal Al Saud. To find the qibla, make sure you know where Daniella grey mfc the world you are in relation to Makkah. Hold the watch horizontally, and point the hour Orgasm pussy towards the sun. Retrieved 6 April Al-Wehda FC. References Qur'an

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The primary reason for most Muslims is that Mecca is the birthplace of Muhummad, the prophet of Islam. Many of his revelations also occurred within the confines of the city.

In addition to being the birthplace of the Prophet, Mecca is also the location of the Kaa'ba , a structure allegedly built by Abraham. The Zamzam Well, the holy well that supposedly sprung into existence to give water to Hagar, wife of Abraham, can also be found in Mecca.

Only Muslims are allowed to enter and live in Mecca. Non-Muslims must take bypasses around the city, and regular inspections of travelers and their documents are carried out to enforce this tradition.

Non-Muslims caught in the city are subject to punishment, although a limited number of Westerners have braved its confines anyway, reporting back to the outside world.

Both the mosque and the city itself are strictly off limits to non-Muslims. For most English speakers, "Mecca" has long been the accepted transliteration of the original Arabic for the holy city.

The word Mecca in English has gone on to refer to any center of activity sought by a group of people with a common interest.

Las Vegas, for example, is considered the "gambling Mecca" even though gambling is strictly prohibited by Islamic law. Many Muslims find these out-of-context uses offensive.

In an effort to distinguish between the metaphorical and official references to the holy site, the Saudi Arabian government began promoting a new transliteration, Makkah al-Mukkaramah, in the s.

Many English-speaking Muslims now consider this the preferred spelling, and closer to the original Arabic.

While this new usage has been officially adopted by the U. Department of State, its spread is still incipient among anglophones at large.

Toggle navigation. ReligionFacts Mecca. The Religious Significance of Mecca In addition to prayer, a pilgrimage to Mecca is required of every Muslim who can afford it as one of the Five Pillars of the faith.

Mecca or Makkah? Use advanced technology. There are over a dozen different iPhone or iPad free apps look like Athan Pro or Qibla that will use the built-in GPS and compass to point in exactly the correct direction no matter where in the world you are.

The internet has sites that will calculate the direction that is shortest distance to al Qiblah. No, the sun rises in the east. The direction of the Qibla varies depending on your location.

Not Helpful 29 Helpful Laith M. Use a mobile app to locate Qibla at your area. Not Helpful 17 Helpful Not Helpful 16 Helpful Do you advise me to face any direction after failing to figure out the true direction?

You create your own destiny, there is is always left or right, but you do whatever you think is the best for your heart and for you.

It may sound cliche, but it is true. Not Helpful 40 Helpful You can just download a Qibla app on your phone, or you can pray where you like, it's nothing to worry about you are doing it for God, it's okay.

Not Helpful 10 Helpful From India, Mecca is in west, so find west direction. The direction in which the Sun sets. Not Helpful 18 Helpful Match the time of day with the position of the sun in the sky the sun rises from the east and sets in the west.

Based on this, figure out where southeast is, as this is the direction of the Qibla in England. If you find out you are wrong within the Salah, move smoothly within the Salah.

If afterwards you find out the direction you were facing was not Qibla, don't worry, you dont have to repeat your prayer.

Not Helpful 7 Helpful Use a mobile app to locate Qibla in your area. You can use an application for smartphones to find Qibla easily.

Not Helpful 5 Helpful If you are in Canada, turn so you stand between North and East and then turn slightly more to the east. If you are in America, it is the same except slightly less to the East.

Not Helpful 2 Helpful 4. Unanswered Questions. How can I find the of Qibla in Nigeria? What is a mathematical formula to find the kibla to Mecca?

Do I face the mosque when reading namaaz? What would be a detailed description of how to find the Qibla using a mobile phone?

Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Helpful 1 Not Helpful 1. If traveling to an unfamiliar location or someplace outdoors, try to note your location beforehand, then use one of the aforementioned techniques to find the correct direction to Makkah.

Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0. If you have a PDA, there are some free Islamic software applications that can show you the Qibla during day or at night, based on your location.

Helpful 0 Not Helpful 1. Prayer mats are available that contain a compass to help locate the Qibla. Helpful 1 Not Helpful 0.

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